Year Round Fodder Production And Preservation Biology Essay

Introduction

In the Pakistan economic system farm animal plays really of import function. In entire GDP farm animal portion 11.4 % . In Pakistan chiefly there are three types of farm animal production systems, rural family where animate beings are closely unbroken and fresh fish is grown or purchased from market. Large herds of animate beings are kept on commercial farms and on rangelands. Pakistan has a big figure of livestock populations so there is competition with homo and the land for nutrient and provender. On the other manus there is addition in the residential settlements, industries installing, H2O logging and salt consequences in decrease handiness of land for fodder cultivation. The production output per animate beings is enhanced by production of good quality fresh fish. The scarceness in animate beings feed is major factor in the development of farm animal production. At present the fresh fish is in deficient measure and quality so the animate beings are thin and ill-fed therefore produce less meat and milk. The fresh fish is the cheapest beginning of animate being provender and so it necessary to heighten fodder proportion in animate being ‘s diet. Fodder deficit is the major restraint in the production and development of farm animal in Pakistan. There is addition in population of human being and bring forthing hard currency harvests consequences in the lessening of land for fodder production. Meat, milk and dairy merchandises are really of import in Pakistani diet and the demand for milk is lifting aggressively due to increasing in population. Year circular handiness of fresh fish in equal sum and alimentary quality is really necessary for the development of farm animal. In footings of entire digestible foods our animate beings are lacking about 29 million dozenss and in entire digestible protein about 2 million dozenss. The chief fresh fish harvests sown in rabi season ( winter ) includes barseem, oats and Lucerne while in kharif season ( summer ) includes sorghum, maize, millet and black-eyed pea. In many countries of Pakistan there is deficit in the handiness of green fresh fish from May to June and September to October. This job is solved by seeding multicut fresh fish truths like Lucerne, S.S. loanblend and flat grass.

Year-Round Green Fodder Availability

Largely the dairy animate beings are kept in intensive production system. The major beginnings of eatage production in Pakistan are irrigated countries of Punjab, Pakhton khowah and Sindh. The quality of eatage production at seeding and harvesting clip is really of import than absolute production of dry affair. The measure of eatage varies harmonizing to carnal position such in care, gestation and lactation. So farmer green goods or purchase daily use forage on a regular basis. Some multicut harvests like alfalfa, berseem, and S.S. intercrossed guarantee regular and speedy supply of alimentary eatage. The major eatages are discus one by one in item ;

KHARIF FODDER ( SUMMER CROPS )

Sorghum

Sorghum is locally known as jowar or Shari. This is really of import and utile summer fresh fish harvest. It provides toothsome green fresh fish over a longer period than corn and millet do. Its green fresh fish contains 12 % protein, 70 % saccharides, minerals, nitrogen free infusion, and petroleum fat. Basically sorghum is a tropical works, but it has adapted to climatic conditions in temperate zone. It can with stand heat and drouth. This harvest requires 2 plowings with a agriculturist along with planking. To increase fodder output 2 bags of DAP with 1 bag of urea per hectare should be added at the clip of seting. The optimal seed rate per hectare is 75-80 Kg for fresh fish production. Fodder harvest is normally sown by broadcast method. Sorghum is sown for fresh fish from March to September is recommended. The best clip for reaping fresh fish is at the 50 % header phase. It can give about 50-70 tons/hectare green fresh fish.

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Maize

It is locally known as makai. It is really of import fresh fish harvest. Staggered seting from Feb-Sep helps get by with the fresh fish scarceness jobs faced in May-June and Oct-Nov. The green fresh fish contains 1.56 % protien, 0.30 % fat and 5.27 % fibre. It is extensively sown in irrigated and rain fed countries. The seedbed is prepared by plowings and planking three times to extinguish balls and weeds. Drill 2 bags each of DAP and urea per hectare at seeding. For a fresh fish harvest, 75-100 Kg/hectare of good quality seed is sufficient. The optimal clip for sowing is ranges from 3rd hebdomad of March to mid September. Fodder is harvested after 50-60 yearss after seeding. Fodder output varies from 50-70 tons/hectare.

Millet

It is locally known as bajra. Its green fresh fish contains 1.50 % protein, 0.33 % fat and 6.89 % petroleum fibre. Assorted cropping of millet with corn and sorghum is really popular. Millet is warm conditions harvest and it does best on light flaxen loam dirts. To fix land a good seed bed, the land is given 2-3 plowings and so planking. Two bags each of urea and DAP, or 5 bags of Nitrophos per hectare at seting are sufficient. For fodder harvest 10-15 kilogram per hectare is used. The broadcast method of sowing is common for fresh fish harvest. Fodder harvest is sown in March-September. Fodder harvest should be harvested at 25 % header phase. Fodder output varies from 45-65 tons/hectare.

Cowpea

It is an of import leguminous summer fresh fish. Cowpea makes an highly of import, alimentary and balanced fresh fish when assorted with corn, sorghum and millet. It improves the dirt birthrate by repairing N from air. The green fresh fish contains 15.56 % protein, 2.32 % fat and 30.64 % petroleum fibre. The black-eyed pea is a tropical works and thrives under warm and humid conditions. Two-three plowings each followed by planking are required to fix a good seed bed. To better output 2 bags of DAP per hectare may be applied at sowing. For fresh fish harvest 30 kg/ha seed is sufficient. Sowing is carried out in lines. The proper clip of seeding scopes between mid March to July. Fodder is ready within 50-60 yearss after seeding. The best clip film editing is the clip of cod formation, when the fresh fish is full of foods. An plain harvest of black-eyed peas usually outputs about 30-40 tons/hectare.

RABI FODDER ( WINTER CROPS )

BARSEEM

Barseem is major winter fresh fish harvest and is successfully grown under irrigated conditions and to some extent in the full state. Barseem is a Multicut crop fresh fish harvest rich in P and Ca. Being toothsome and readily digestible, it is relished by all animate beings its dry affair contents includes 18.3 % protein, 2.8 % P, 2.6 % Ca and a rich beginning of vitamin A. It supplies abundant alimentary fresh fish in perennial film editings from November to May. It is normally cultivated in canal irrigated countries of the state. The land should be given 2 – 3 plowings to do it soft and good pulverized. One bag of DAP is per acre is an economical manner to run into its fertiliser demand. Seed rate is 15-20 Kg of healthy quality per hectare should be broadcast in standing H2O. Sowing clip is from the last hebdomad of September to the first hebdomad of October is the best clip for seeding but for late assortment can be sown up to mid November. The first cut is ready in 50 – 60 yearss after seeding. Subsequent film editings are available at 30 – 40 twenty-four hours intervals throughout the season. New assortments yield about 80 – 100 dozenss green fresh fish per hectare.

Alfalfa

Lucerne is a multicut, perennial leguminous plant eatage harvest. Lucerne contains protein 18 % , carbohydrates 11 % , fat 8 % , and fiber 30 % . It provides green fresh fish throughout the twelvemonth, particularly during the two periods of fresh fish scarceness in the state, May-June and October-November. It does best under conditions of low rainfall and high sunlight. A good seedbed is prepared with turning Big Dipper followed by 3-4 cultivations and planking. 2-3 bags of DAP per hectare are sufficient. Seed rate is 15-20 Kg/ha in lines 45 cm apart in good wattar status. A harvest sown between October to November gives a good fresh fish return. The first film editing should be taken three months after seeding. Later cuts may be taken after an interval of 5-6 hebdomads. On norm in six film editings per twelvemonth 65-90 dozenss per hectare fresh fish can be obtained.

Oat

Oat is an of import winter fresh fish harvest sown as exclusive harvest or together with barseem. Oat is individual cut harvest and supplies fodder over a shorter period of clip. The oat works contains protein 9.23 % , fat 3.56 % , fiber 30.44 % . The foliages and grains are high in provitamin A and saccharides. Oats provide alimentary fresh fish to all animate beings peculiarly Equus caballuss and mules. When assorted with barseem oats provide balances feed to milch animate beings. The works grows in cold and moist conditions. Clay loam dirt produces the best harvest. It requires 3-4 plowings with a local Big Dipper along with planking to fix a all right and powdered seedbed. To acquire good output it requires 2 bags of DAP and 2 bags of carbamide should be applied at the clip of seeding. Recommended seed rate for fresh fish is 75 Kg/hac. Sowing should be done in rows 20 cm apart. Early planting starts by the terminal of September and continues until mid December. Harvesting is done when 25-30 % of the caputs have formed normally gives the best output. It can give about 60-8- tones/hectare green fresh fish.

To do a whole twelvemonth fresh fish program we have to cognize about the demand of the animate beings harmonizing to season, the fresh fish harvest which is available in a season, the approximative output of the fresh fish per acre or hectare. To do the planning better we have to take leguminous fresh fish and multi cut truths of fresh fish. The approximative output of of import fresh fish is given in the tabular array ;

The carnal demand is really necessary to cipher because fresh fishs are chief provender of the animate beings. The fresh fish demand varies with the age and production position of the animate being. The care demand can be merely fulfilled from fresh fishs. For stall Federal animals the cardinal function is to feed ad-libitum. A American bison or cattle one animate beings unit requires 0.5-0.6 acre land for fodder cultivation in a season.

One Buff/Cow/Bull is 1 Gold

FYS/MYS is ? AU

A Cow require 40 kilogram /AU/day

A Buff require 60 kg/AU/day

Now we have to cipher the entire animate being units which are kept at farm. For illustration ;

45 buff farm with 10 FYS

AU are 45+5 = 50 AU

Handiness of the fresh fish harmonizing to their harvest home clip.

Rabi season ( Dec – April )

Barseem + Oats

Thin period ( May – Jun )

Maize

Kharif season ( Jul – Sep )

Sorghum

Thin period ( Oct – Nov )

Millet

The fresh fish required for 50 AU round the twelvemonth is calculated as ;

Animal require Barseem / oats for 5 months ( Dec – Apr )

50 AU x 60 Kg/day x 150 yearss a‚? 450 Thymine

Animal require Maize for 2 months ( May – June )

50 AU x 60 Kg/day x 60 yearss a‚? 180 Thymine

Animal require Sorghum for 3 months ( Jul – Sep )

50 AU x 60 Kg/day x 90 yearss a‚? 270 Thymine

Animal require Millet for 2 months ( Oct – Nov )

50 AU x 60 Kg/day x 60 yearss a‚? 180 Thymine

Entire fresh fish requires for 50 AU in a twelvemonth is 1080 dozenss. Now we have to cipher the land which is required to cultivate 1080 dozenss fodder. The land required for fresh fish unit of ammunition the twelvemonth is calculated as ;

Area for Barseem/Oats = Requirement/yield

450 T / 80 ( T/Ha ) = 5.63 hour angle x 2.47 =13.89 estates

Area for Maize = Requirement/yield

180 T / 50 ( T/Ha ) = 3.6 hour angle x 2.47 =8.89 estates

Area for Sorghum = Requirement/yield

270 T / 50 ( T/Ha ) = 5.4 hour angle x 2.47 =13.34 estates

Area for Millet = Requirement/yield

180 T / 45 ( T/Ha ) = 4 hour angle x 2.47 =9.88 estates

About 23 estates are required to cultivate fresh fish for 50 AU in a season ( rabi or kharif ) .

If the animate beings are kept on scope land so we have to cipher the transporting capacity of the rangeland. The production of eatage species averages about 700 kg/ha of dry affair per twelvemonth. The spread is 500 hectare in size and you are be aftering to maintain cattles on it. Then how 400 kg cattles can be kept?

Calculation of entire useable eatage:

Eatage production ( kg/ha ) X % allowable usage X country ( hour angle ) = Entire eatage ( kilogram ) available for croping

700 X 0.50 X 500 = 17500 kilogram

Calculation of forage demand:

Weight of cattles ( kilogram ) X day-to-day DMI ( 2 % of organic structure wt )

Ten figure of yearss grazing land will be grazed ( 365 ) = forage demand / cow / twelvemonth

400 X 0.02 X 365 = 2920 kilogram of eatage / cow / twelvemonth

Calculation of carrying rate:

Entire useable eatage ( kilogram ) & A ; divide ; eatage / cow / twelvemonth = figure of cattles grazing land will transport

175000 & A ; divide ; 2920 = 59.93 = 60

Entire 60 cattles can be kept on 500 hectare spread for a twelvemonth.

FODDER PERSERVATION

Cannon fodders are really of import beginning of farm animal eating. Due to alter in the conditions the handiness of fresh fish is drastically reduced, so the production of animate beings besides reduced. In Pakistan there are two periods of fresh fish deficit i.e. , May – June and October – November. However really big sum of fresh fish is produced before these two periods such as February to April and July to September. In these yearss surplus fresh fish can be preserved as a hay and silage devising, so it shows the twelvemonth unit of ammunition fresh fish supply.

Silage Production

The chief rule of silage production is to hive away the fresh fish harvest and except O or hive away the fresh fish aerobically. In anaerobiotic conditions the micro-organism ferment the saccharides and produces organic acids, chiefly acetic acid and lactic acid with really less sum of butyric acid. The agitation continues pH of 3.6 – 5.0. In Pakistan for silage devising corn, sorghum and oats are suited harvests for silage devising. Silo is an airtight construction which is designed for storage and saving of silage harvests. There are three types of silo.

PIT SILO:

A cavity is dug in the land, which is plastered with clay or concrete stuff.

TRENCH / BUNKER SILO:

This type of silo is made on level dirt surface. The side walls and floor is made with concrete. After make fulling, the silo is sealed with clay, or polythene sheath.

SILAGE / WEENIE BAGS:

It is new invention and going popular because it does non necessitate building and care. These bags are impermanent and good for one usage. It keeps air tight and preserves the contents of silage.

METHOD OF SILAGE MAKING

The type of silo harmonizing to local conditions is selected for the devising of silage.

The wall of silo is lined with the sheet of polyethylene.

At the proper phase of adulthood the fresh fish should be harvested.

The fresh fish is chopped in 2-3 centimeter length.

The silo is filled in beds uniformly.

The compression of fresh fish in silo should be decently done. The compression is done with tractor in instance of large silo.

The polyethylene or clay plaster should be used to seal a silo.

For the increasing of protein contents of silage 2 % urea solution or molasses can be used.

ENSILING Procedure

As the fresh fish is harvested, chopped, compacted, and sealed the procedure of ensiling started. It has four stairss or stages ;

The aerophilic stage is started as the silage is sealed and the O which is trapped in eatage pieces is release by respiration of the aerophilic bacteriums and barms. The enzymes of the works become active.

The agitation stage started as the O is released and the conditions become aerophilic. In this stage the lactic acid bring forthing bacteriums is increasing and pH is reduced 4. To promote the lactic acid agitation 2-3 % molasses is assorted during storage.

This is the stable stage. In this stage pH is decreased, the H2O and air is non entered in this stage the lactic acid bacteriums start diminishing. In this stage keep the air tight seal to protect the silage from spoilage.

Once the silo is opened by gnawers or for feed out the spoilage begins. This consequence in the addition of pH.

Silage ADDITIVES

The chief rule to utilize silage additives is produce feedstuff with a greater alimentary value, decrease of losingss associated with ensiling.

Agitation INHIBITORS

Acids may be used for direct acidification. Formic and propionic acid can be used.

FERMENTATION Stimulations

Grains, molasses whey, urea, ammonium hydroxides have been added in silage at ensiling.

CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD SILAGE

The general visual aspect of the silage is good indicant to anticipate its alimentary value.

Color: the bright or light green or green brown colour harmonizing to fresh fish ensile shows good quality silage.

Smell: the lactic acid olfactory property is good but with no butyric acid olfactory property.

Texture: the house texture with softer stuff non easy rubbed from the fibre.

pH: the pH around 4 is good.

ADVANTAGES OF SILAGE MAKING

There are fewer decrease losingss

Most of the foods in fresh fish can be preserved

Silage nutritionary value remains unchanged during the full eating period.

Silage is the most economical beginning of provender because it prevents wastage of the lupus erythematosus favored parts of fresh pasturage ( such as root ) .

Silage requires less storage infinite than hay, and can non be destroyed by fire.

Silage improves the digestibleness of protein in pasturage and it preserves most of the vitamins.

DISADVANTAGES OF SILAGE MAKING

Excess labour is required.

Not good suited for intermittent usage.

If improperly stored the losingss will be high.

Considerable dearly-won equipments are required for harvest home and storing of silage.

HAY Devising

The fresh fish which is harvested during turning period and preserved by drying and used during the yearss of feed deficit. The fresh fish is harvested during optimal phase of adulthood. The rule involved in hay devising is to cut down the H2O contents of fresh fish from 65 – 85 % to 20 % or less. In Pakistan Lucrne and Barseem are suited leguminous fresh fish harvests for hay devising. In hilly country natural grass grazing land besides can be harvested for hay devising.

METHOD OF HAY MAKING

The fresh fish harvest which is used as hay devising should be mowed every bit early as possible after making early bloom phase of adulthood and as fortunes allow.

Attempts should be made to choose the rain free conditions for reaping. Minimum of 2 – 3 yearss are required for good drying conditions are necessary for hay hardening. So upwind prognosiss are really necessary in hay devising.

Conditioning of harvested fresh fish harvest can cut down the drying period. In this process fresh fish is passed to put of rollers to check unfastened the stems therefore facilitate drying.

To avoid inordinate smashing losingss and over exposure to sun harvested fresh fish should be raked before complete drying.

To ease drying turning of windrow is done.

When the fresh fish is sufficiently dry baling should be done. Round and square bales can be made.

Store the bales in the moist cogent evidence shop house.

CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD HAY

Leafiness: the hay which has high leave to stem ratio is considered good.

Color: the desirable colour of hay is bright green, brown colour is unwanted.

Olfactory property: the olfactory property from hay should be pleasant.

Mustiness: hay should non be moldy,

ADVANTAGES OF HAY MAKING

In hay most of the wet is has been removed so there is low conveyance cost.

Good quality hay leads to desirable DMI by animate beings.

The fresh fish which is excess in the season can be conserved and used in the yearss of feed deficit.

DISADVANTAGES OF HAY MAKING

Hay doing requires optimal upwind conditions.

The digestive and rough protein value of hay is non sufficient for care plus production.

If the is non sufficiently dry and is stored, it can be damaged by fire.

If hay is incorporating inordinate wet the cast can turn on it.

If fresh fish is improperly harvested so the loss of foliages can happen. So most alimentary portion of fresh fish is loss.

If the harvested fresh fish or hay is given inordinate exposure to sunlight so it causes loss of foods as provitamin A.

If harvested fresh fish or hay is rained during the drying period so H2O soluble foods are loss.

Decision

Year unit of ammunition fresh fish handiness is really necessary for the production doggedness and net income of the dairy concern. So to do the dairy concern profitable and avoid from the unwanted fresh fish deficit, you have to be after the fresh fish handiness round the twelvemonth. By acceptance of the fresh fish production engineering and saving of excess fresh fish in the season, it will assist you in the successful twelvemonth unit of ammunition fresh fish program. As a research worker you should develop new and high giving truths of fresh fish and present efficient ways to increase fresh fish production.